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                            2022年挪威成為歐洲最大天然氣供應國

                            點擊次數:408 發表時間:2023-3-29

                            中國石化新聞網

                            中國石化新聞網訊 據路透社2023年3月19日報道,在去年產能大國出口歐洲的天然氣流量下降以后,挪威在2022年主要通過管道出口了超過1200億立方米的天然氣,使其成為歐洲最大的天然氣供應國。

                            這個北歐國家通過海底管道網絡向英國和德國等天然氣消費國出口天然氣。此外,挪威還運輸液化天然氣(LNG)。

                            讓我們來看看挪威的天然氣出口路線。

                            挪威有多少條輸氣管道?  

                            去年,挪威通過一個總長度超過8800公里(5470英里)的管道系統向歐盟和英國輸送了1169億立方米天然氣,挪威管道系統由挪威天然氣管道運輸公司(Gassco)運營的22條獨立管道組成。

                            此外,Alvheim和Martin Linge氣田生產的天然氣通過其他運營商管理的管道出口到英國。

                            從Alvheim輸送天然氣的SAGE管道由Ancala Midstream公司運營,而從Martin Linge輸送天然氣的FUKA管道由北海中游合作伙伴公司運營。

                            誰接收挪威的天然氣?  

                            挪威天然氣管道系統連接7個接收終端:英國和德國各有兩個,比利時、丹麥和法國各有一個。

                            位于英格蘭東海岸的Easington接收終端通過Langeled管道接收挪威天然氣,而位于蘇格蘭的St. Fergus接收終端則連接Flags和Vesterled管道接收挪威天然氣。

                            德國旗下的Dornum和Emden的接收終端位于靠近荷蘭邊境的北海海岸,德國這兩個接收終端連接到Europipe I和II以及Norpipe管道,從挪威進口天然氣。

                            在比利時,位于澤布呂赫港的一個接收終端連接到Zeepipe管道,而通過Franpipe管道的天然氣則在法國敦刻爾克的一個終端接收。

                            自2022年以來,丹麥西海岸的Nybro接收終端通過波羅的海管道接收挪威天然氣,這條管道穿過丹麥,然后繼續通過海底進入波蘭。

                            挪威出口LNG嗎?  

                            挪威還在北極小鎮哈默菲斯特(Hammerfest)運營者一個液化終端,這個項目每年可輸送65億立方米LNG,約占挪威天然氣出口總量的5%。

                            2022年,這個液化終端的LNG出口量僅為37億立方米,因為這個液化終端在2020年9月發生火災后一直關閉到2022年5月份。

                            盡管LNG運輸船可以將挪威LNG的運輸范圍擴大到歐洲以外,但2022年幾乎所有的LNG出口都流向了歐洲目的地。

                            誰在挪威生產天然氣?  

                            挪威吸引了包括德國溫特斯豪Dea公司、法國道達爾能源公司、美國康菲公司和英國殼牌公司在內國際大公司。

                            然而,挪威天然氣生產的最大參與者是挪威能源巨頭Equinor,這家公司由挪威政府持有多數股權。Equinor生產了超過450億立方米的天然氣,約占挪威2022年1238億立方米天然氣總產量的36%。

                            Equinor還代表Petoro公司銷售天然氣,Petoro公司是挪威一家完全國有的石油公司,擁有海上油田的股份,但本身不經營任何資產。

                            李峻 編譯自 路透社

                            原文如下:

                            Norway Named Europe’s Largest Gas Supplier in 2022 

                            Norway exported more than 120 billion cubic meters (bcm) of gas in 2022, mainly via pipelines, making it Europe's largest gas supplier following a drop in the largger producer flows last year.

                            The Nordic country exports its gas via a network of subsea pipelines to consumers, such as Britain and Germany. In addition, it ships liquefied natural gas (LNG).

                            Here is a look at Norway's export routes.

                            HOW MANY PIPELINES ARE THERE?

                            Norway last year piped 116.9 bcm of gas to the European Union and Britain via a pipeline system of more than 8,800 kilometers (5,470 miles), consisting of 22 individual pipelines operated by Gassco.

                            In addition, gas produced from the Alvheim and Martin Linge fields is exported to Britain via pipelines managed by other operators.

                            The SAGE pipeline, which ships gas from Alvheim, is operated by Ancala Midstream, while the FUKA pipeline, which ships gas from Martin Linge, is operated by North Sea Midstream Partners.

                            WHO RECEIVES NORWEGIAN GAS?

                            The pipelines connect to seven receiving terminals: Britain and Germany each have two, and Belgium, Denmark and France all have one.

                            The Easington terminal on the east coast of England receives gas through the Langeled pipeline, while the St. Fergus terminal in Scotland connects to the Flags and the Vesterled pipelines.

                            Germany's terminals in Dornum and Emden, located along the North Sea coast close to the Dutch border, connect to the Europipe I and II, and the Norpipe pipelines.

                            In Belgium, a terminal at the port of Zeebrugge connects to the Zeepipe pipeline, while gas through the Franpipe pipeline is received at a terminal in Dunkerque, France.

                            Since 2022, the Nybro terminal on the Danish west coast receives Norwegian gas through the Baltic Pipe, which crosses Denmark before continuing subsea into Poland.

                            DOES NORWAY EXPORT LNG?

                            Norway also operates one liquefaction terminal in the Arctic town of Hammerfest, also known as Melkoeya.

                            It can deliver 6.5 billion cubic meters of LNG per year, accounting for about 5% of Norwegian gas exports.

                            In 2022, exports from the terminal were only 3.7 bcm because the plant was offline until the end of May following a fire in September 2020.

                            Although LNG tankers can extend the reach of Norwegian gas beyond Europe, almost all of the exports went to European destinations in 2022.

                            WHO PRODUCES GAS IN NORWAY?

                            The country has attracted international companies, including Wintershall Dea, TotalEnergies, ConocoPhillips and Shell.

                            However, the biggest player is Equinor, majority-owned by the Norwegian state. It produced more than 45 billion cubic meters of natural gas, roughly 36% of total Norwegian production of 123.8 bcm in 2022.

                            Equinor also sells gas on behalf of Petoro, a fully state-owned company that holds stakes in offshore fields but does not operate any assets itself.


                            (責任編輯:黃振 審核:蔣文娟 )

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